Template:Citation Style documentation

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Usage

This template is used to build consistent documentation pages for Citation Style 1 templates.

For example: {{Citation Style documentation|author}} will show the author documentation.

Where a particular section of documentation is not appropriate for a certain template, simply add the text manually or create a new subtemplate.

Each module of text is a subtemplate that can be edited using the link.

Section usage

When creating template documentation, use the following order of sections and content:

  • Lead: a brief overview of the template intent
  • Usage: samples of blank parameters that can be copied and pasted
  • Examples: examples of various usage
  • Parameters: detailed descriptions of each parameter
    • Syntax: overview of the template syntax
    • Deprecated: list of deprecated parameters
    • Description: parameter descriptions separated by function in this general order:
      • Authors
      • Title
      • Date
      • Publisher
      • Edition, series, volume
      • In-source locations
      • URL
      • Anchor
      • Identifiers
      • Quote
      • Editors
      • Lay summary
      • Display options

Lead section

Use {{csdoc|lead|content}} to create consistent content for the lead:

[edit subtemplate]

This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for .

Options for this field:

One unnamed parameter is used to create the trailing text.

Markup Renders as
{{csdoc|lead|books}}

This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for books.

Lua notice

[edit subtemplate]

Usage section

Start the usage section with {{csdoc|usage}}:

Copy a blank version to use. All parameter names must be in lowercase. Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Delete unused parameters to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page.

Parameters to copy are enclosed in tables created by sub-templates.

Full horizontal style

  • Start with {{csdoc|usage full}}
  • Precede the sample markup with : to create an indent
  • Enclose the sample in <code><code class="nowrap" style=""><nowiki>...</nowiki></code></code>
  • Close the table with {{end}}
{{csdoc|usage full}}
:<code><nowiki>{{cite book |last1= |first1= |author1-link= |last2= |first2= |author2-link= |editor1-first= |editor1-last= |editor1-link= |others= |title= |trans-title= |url= |archive-url= |archive-date= |format= |access-date= |type= |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year= |orig-year= |publisher= |location= |language= |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |id= |page= |pages= |at= |trans-chapter= |chapter= |chapter-url= |quote= |ref= |bibcode= |lay-url= |lay-source= |lay-date= |author-mask= |display-authors= |postscript= |last-author-amp=}}</nowiki></code>
{{end}}
Full parameter set in horizontal format
{{cite book |last1= |first1= |author1-link= |last2= |first2= |author2-link= |editor1-first= |editor1-last= |editor1-link= |others= |title= |trans-title= |url= |archive-url= |archive-date= |format= |access-date= |type= |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year= |orig-year= |publisher= |location= |language= |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |id= |page= |pages= |at= |trans-chapter= |chapter= |chapter-url= |quote= |ref= |bibcode= |lay-url= |lay-source= |lay-date= |author-mask= |display-authors= |postscript= |last-author-amp=}}

Most commonly used horizontal style

  • Start with {{csdoc|usage common}}
  • Precede the sample markup with : to create an indent
  • Enclose the sample in <code><code class="nowrap" style=""><nowiki>...</nowiki></code></code>
  • Close the table with {{end}}
{{csdoc|usage common}}
:<code><nowiki>{{cite book |last= |first= |author-link= |title= |url= |access-date= |year= |publisher= |location= |isbn= |page= |pages=}}</nowiki></code>
{{end}}
Most commonly used parameters in horizontal format
{{cite book |last= |first= |author-link= |title= |url= |access-date= |year= |publisher= |location= |isbn= |page= |pages=}}

Full vertical style

The full vertical style is created in three columns: Vertical list, Prerequisites and Brief instructions / notes.

  • Start with:
{{csdoc|usage vertical}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
  • Create the vertical list column
  • Separate the next column with:
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
  • Create the prerequisites column; blank lines must include a &nbsp;
  • Separate the next column with:
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
  • Create the instructions column; blank lines must include a &nbsp;
  • End with:
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical end}}

Example:

{{csdoc|usage vertical}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
{{cite book
| last                  =
| first                 =
| author-link           =
}}
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
last
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
&nbsp;
same as last1
same as first1
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical end}}
Full parameter set in vertical format
Vertical list Prerequisites Brief instructions / notes
{{cite book
| last                  =
| first                 =
| author-link           =
}}
 
 
last
 
 
 
same as last1
same as first1
 
 
  • If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column, it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.

Sub-templates

Usage

[edit subtemplate]

Copy a blank version to use. All parameter names must be in lowercase. Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Delete unused parameters to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page. |}

Usage full

[edit subtemplate]

Full parameter set in horizontal format

Usage common

[edit subtemplate]

Most commonly used parameters in horizontal format

Usage vertical

[edit subtemplate]

Full parameter set in vertical format
Vertical list Prerequisites Brief instructions / notes

Usage vertical mid

[edit subtemplate]

| style="vertical-align:top;" | |}

Usage vertical end

[edit subtemplate]

|}

  • If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column, it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.

Examples section

Use {{markup2}} to format the examples (see that template's documentation for use).

{{markup2 |t=Basic usage with url (and accessdate) and edition
|m={{cite book |title=Mysterious book}}
|r={{cite book |title=Mysterious book}}
}}

Basic usage with url (and accessdate) and edition

  • {{cite book |title=Mysterious book}}
Mysterious book. 

Parameters section

syntax

[edit subtemplate]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

COinS

[edit subtemplate]

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template, is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be rendered in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example &nbsp;, &ndash;, etc, should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup '' (italic font) or ''' (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters
  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |contribution=, |entry=, |article=, |section=
  • |title=
  • |publication-place=, |publicationplace=, |place=, |location=
  • |date=, |year=, |publication-date=, |publicationdate=
  • |series=, |version=
  • |volume=
  • |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |distributor=, |institution=
  • |url=
  • |chapter-url=, |chapterurl=, |contribution-url=, |contributionurl=, |section-url=, |sectionurl=
  • |author#=, |author-last#=, |author#-last=, |last#=, |surname#=
  • |author-first#=, |author#-first=, |first#=, |given#=
  • any of the named identifiers (|isbn=, |issn=, |doi=, |pmc=, etc)

sep_period

[edit subtemplate]

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a period (.).

sep_comma

[edit subtemplate]

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a comma (,).

required

[edit subtemplate]

This parameter is required and will generate an error if not defined. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template-doc-demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.

deprecated

[edit subtemplate]

The coauthor, coauthors, and Ref parameters are deprecated. Their use will place the page into Category:Pages containing cite templates with deprecated parameters:

  • for coauthor · coauthors: Use last# / first# or author or authors. If coauthor · coauthors are used for et al, then use display-authors=etal instead.
Options for this field:
  • |date2=yes adds:
    • date2
    • month2
    • year2

author

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_author" />last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors or authors for whom only one name is listed by the source, use last or one of its aliases (e.g. |author=Bono). Aliases: last1, surname, surname1, author, author1.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: first1, given, given1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn). See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed. Aliases: surname1, given1 through surnamen, givenn, or author1 through authorn. For an individual author plus an institutional author, you can use |first1=...|last1=...|author2=....
    • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: author-link1, authorlink, authorlink1, author1-link, author1link.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-linkn. Aliases: authorlink1 through authorlinkn, or author1-link through authorn-link, or author1link through authornlink.
    • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s)
  • vauthors: comma separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses:
    |vauthors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corporation))
    • author-link and author-mask may be used for the individual names in |vauthors= as described above
  • authors: Free-form list of author names; not an alias of last
  • <span id="csdoc_translator" />translator-last: Surname of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator1, translator1-last, translator-last1.
    • translator-first: Given or first names of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator1-first, translator-first1.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-last1, translator-first1 through translator-lastn, translator-firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of translators (each translator-firstn requires a corresponding translator-lastn). Aliases: translator1-last, translator1-first through translatorn-last, translatorn-first, or translator1 through translatorn.
    • translator-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator—not the translator's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: translator-link1, translator1-link.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-link1 through translator-linkn. Aliases: translator1-link through translatorn-link.
  • <span id="csdoc_collaboration" />collaboration: Name of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors which list one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends 'et al.' to author name-list.
  • Note: When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field or else the anchor will not match the inline link.
Options for this field:
  • |contributor=yes adds contributors (use with cite book and citation only)
  • |coauthors=yes adds "coauthors: (deprecated) Names of coauthors. Use the same format as the authors."
  • |others=yes adds "others: To record other contributors to the work, such as "Illustrated by Smith" or "Trans. Smith"."
  • |aliases= add aliases for last.

editor

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_editors" />editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor-last1, editor-surname, editor-surname1, editor1-last, editor, editor1.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor-first1, editor-given, editor-given1, editor1-first.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-last1, editor-first1 through editor-lastn, editor-firstn (Aliases: editor-surnamen or editorn-last; editor-givenn or editorn-first; editorn). For an individual editor plus an institutional editor, you can use |editor-first1=...|editor-last1=...|editor2=....
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor-link1.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-link1 through editor-linkn (alias editorn-link).
  • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s)
  • veditors: comma separated list of editor names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional names in doubled parentheses:
    |veditors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corporation))
  • editor-linkn and editor-maskn may be used for the individual names in |veditors=, as described above
  • editors: Free-form list of editor names; not an alias of editor-last
Display:
Use display-editors to control the length of the displayed editor name list and to specify when "et al." is included.
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."

title

[edit subtemplate]

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics. If script-title is defined, title holds romanized transliteration of title in script-title.
    • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc); not italicized, follows italicized transliteration defined in title. May be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |title=Tōkyō tawā |script-title=ja:東京タワー |trans-title=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; {{!}} (preferred)
{{bracket|text}} &#124; or {{pipe}}see also Help:Table § Rendering the vertical line symbol
  • title-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the source named in title – do not use a web address; do not wikilink. Alias: titlelink.
Options for this field:


title_title sets the display title:

  • encyclopedia = encyclopedia
  • default = title

web

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_title" />title: Title of source page on website. Displays in quotes. If script-title is defined, title holds romanized transliteration of title in script-title.
    • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc); follows transliteration defined in title. May be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |title=Tōkyō tawā |script-title=ja:東京タワー |trans-title=Tokyo Tower ...
    • <span id="csdoc_trans_title" />trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; &#124;
{{bracket|text}} {{pipe}}see also Help:Table § Rendering pipe itself
This parameter is required and will generate an error if not defined. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template-doc-demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • <span id="csdoc_work" /><span id="csdoc_website" />website: Title of website; may be wikilinked. Displays in italics. Aliases: work

chapter

[edit subtemplate]

  • chapter: The chapter heading of the source. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Displays in quotes.
    • script-chapter: Chapter heading for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc); follows transliteration defined in chapter. Should be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |chapter=Tōkyō tawā |script-chapter=ja:東京タワー |trans-chapter=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-chapter: English translation of the chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after the chapter field; if chapter-url is defined, then trans-chapter is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Options for this field:


title_format sets the display format:

  • italics = Displays in italics.
  • work = If work is defined, then title is displayed in quotes, else displays in italics.
  • default = Displays in quotes.

title_title sets the display title:

  • booktitle = booktitle
  • default = chapter

type

[edit subtemplate]

  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, CD liner, Press release. Alias: medium.
Options for this field:


  • type_default: Adds "Defaults to type_default"

journal

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_work" />work: Name of the source periodical; may be wikilinked if relevant. Displays in italics. Aliases: journal, newspaper, magazine, periodical, website.
    • <span id="csdoc_issue" />issue: When the publication is one of a series that is published periodically. Alias: number. When the issue has a special title of its own, this may be given, in italics, along with the issue number, e.g. |issue=2, ''Modern Canadian Literature''. Displayed in parentheses following volume.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter does not display in this citation template (and will produce an error message).
location and publisher are enclosed in parentheses.
page and pages do not show p. or pp.
edition does not display.
Options for this field:
  • department adds:
  • department: Regular department or section within the periodical or journal. Examples include "Communication", "Editorial", "Letter to the Editor", and "Review". Displays after title and is in plain text.

edition

[edit subtemplate]

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised", and so forth. Appends the string " ed." after the field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.

series

[edit subtemplate]

  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.

series_episode

[edit subtemplate]

  • series: The name of the series the episode belongs to; may be wikilinked.
  • series-link: Wikilink to an existing Wikipedia article.

event

[edit subtemplate]

  • event: Event where the speech was given.

agency

[edit subtemplate]

volume

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_volume" />volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; volumes of four characters or less display in bold.

date

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_date" />date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher. For acceptable date formats, see Help:Citation Style 1 § Dates.
For approximate year, precede with "c. ", like this: |date=c. 1900.

For no date, or "undated", add as |date=n.d.
  • <span id="csdoc_year" />year: Year of source being referenced. Use of |date= is recommended unless all of the following conditions are met:
    1. The template uses |ref=harv, or the template is {{citation}}, or |mode=cs2
    2. The |date= format is YYYY-MM-DD.
    3. The citation requires a CITEREF disambiguator.
  • <span id="csdoc_origyear" />orig-year: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |orig-year=First published 1859 or |orig-year=Composed 1904. Alias: origyear
  • <span id="csdoc_df" />df: date format; sets rendered dates to the specified format; does not support date ranges or seasonal dates. Accepts one value which may be one of these:
    dmy – set publication dates to day month year format; access- and archive-dates are not modified;
    mdy – as above for month day, year format
    ymd – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
    dmy-all – set publication, access-, and archive-dates to day month year format;
    mdy-all – as above for month day, year format
    ymd-all – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
  1. Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.
Options for this field:
  • aliases includes aliases for date
  • began adds:
  • OR: began: Full date the first part of the program or episode aired.
    • AND: ended: Full date the last part of the program or episode aired.

publisher

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_publisher" />publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g. a book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, website). Not normally used for periodicals. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc" or "GmbH" are not usually included. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title; if work is defined, then publisher is enclosed in parentheses.
  • <span id="csdoc_location" /><span id="csdoc_place" />place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title; if work is defined, then location is enclosed in parentheses. Alias: location
  • <span id="csdoc_publication-place" />publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place or location are defined, then the location shows after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location are shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • <span id="csdoc_publication-date" />publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • <span id="csdoc_via" />via: Name of the content deliverer (if different from publisher). via is not a replacement for publisher, but provides additional detail. It may be used when the content deliverer presents the source in a format other than the original (e.g. NewsBank), when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), if the deliverer requests attribution, or as requested in WP:The Wikipedia Library (e.g. Credo, HighBeam). See also registration and subscription parameters.
Options for this field:
  • |work=no suppresses "; if work is defined, then publisher and location are enclosed in parentheses"
  • |map=yes changes:
    • publisher: Name of publisher. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g., a book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, website). Displays before title. Do not wikilink—use publisher-link instead.
    • publisher-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the publisher—not the publisher's website; do not wikilink.

newsgroup

[edit subtemplate]

  • newsgroup: Name of newsgroup; a link is automatically created; do not wikilink.

language

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_language" />language: The language in which the source is written. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. Use the full language name or ISO 639-1 code. When the source uses more than one language, list them individually, separated by commas, e.g. |language=French, German. The use of language names or language codes recognized by Wikimedia adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources; do not use templates or wikilinks. Note: When the language is "English" (or "en"), no language is displayed in the citation. Note: When two or more languages are listed there is no need to include "and" before the last language. "and" is inserted automatically by the template.

pages

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_page" />page: The number of a single page in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Displays preceded by p. unless |nopp=y.
  • <span id="csdoc_pages" />OR: pages: A range of pages in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded by pp. unless |nopp=y. Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use |at=.
    • <span id="csdoc_nopp" />nopp: Set to y, yes, or true to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover or |pages=passim.
  • <span id="csdoc_at" />OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=. Use only one of |page=, |pages=, or |at=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.
Options for this field:
  • work adds "or work (or an alias) is defined"

time

[edit subtemplate]

  • minutes: Time the event occurs in the source; followed by "minutes in".
  • OR: time: Time the event occurs in the source; preceded by default text "Event occurs at time".
    • time-caption: Changes the default text displayed before time. Alias: timecaption.

id1

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_id" />id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.

id2

[edit subtemplate]

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. rfc=822 or pmc=345678.

  • <span id="csdoc_arxiv" />arxiv: arXiv identifier; for example: arxiv=hep-th/9205027 (before April 2007) or arxiv=0706.0001<code> or <code>arxiv=1501.00001<code> (since April 2007). Do not include extraneous file extensions like ".pdf" or ".html".
  • <span id="csdoc_asin" />asin: Amazon Standard Identification Number; if first character of asin value is a digit, use isbn.
    • <span id="csdoc_asin-tld" />asin-tld: ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US; valid values: <code>au, br, ca, cn, co.jp, co.uk, de, es, fr, it, mx
  • <span id="csdoc_bibcode" />bibcode: Bibcode; used by a number of astronomical data systems; for example: 1974AJ.....79..819H
  • <span id="csdoc_doi" />doi: Digital object identifier; for example: 10.1038/news070508-7. It is checked to ensure it begins with (10.).
    • <span id="csdoc_doi_brokendate" />doi-broken-date: Date the DOI was found to be non-working at http://dx.doi.org. Use the same format as other dates in the article. Alias: doi_brokendate, doi-inactive-date
  • <span id="csdoc_eissn" />eissn: International Standard Serial Number for the electronic media of a serial publication; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space. Alias: EISSN
  • <span id="csdoc_hdl" />hdl: Handle System identifier for digital objects and other resources on the Internet. Alias: HDL
  • <span id="csdoc_isbn" />isbn: International Standard Book Number; for example: 978-0-8126-9593-9. (See Wikipedia:ISBN and ISBN § Overview.) Dashes in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10-digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back of the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9-digit SBN system, prefix the number with a zero; thus, SBN 902888-45-5 should be entered as |isbn=0-902888-45-5. Do not convert a 10-digit ISBN to 13-digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens, with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10-digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISBN
  • <span id="csdoc_ismn" />ismn: International Standard Music Number; for example: 979-0-9016791-7-7. Hyphens or spaces in the ISMN are optional. Use the ISMN actually printed on or in the work. This parameter should hold only the ISMN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISMN
  • <span id="csdoc_issn" />issn: International Standard Serial Number; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space. Alias: ISSN
  • <span id="csdoc_jfm" />jfm: Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik
  • <span id="csdoc_jstor" />jstor: JSTOR reference number; for example: jstor=3793107 will generate JSTOR 3793107.
  • <span id="csdoc_lccn" />lccn: Library of Congress Control Number. When present, alphabetic prefix characters are to be lower case.
  • <span id="csdoc_mr" />mr: Mathematical Reviews
  • <span id="csdoc_oclc" />oclc: OCLC; WorldCat's Online Computer Library Center
  • <span id="csdoc_ol" />ol: Open Library identifier; do not include "OL" in the value.
  • <span id="csdoc_osti" />osti: Office of Scientific and Technical Information
  • <span id="csdoc_pmc" />pmc: PubMed Central; use article number for full-text free repository of a journal article, e.g. pmc=345678. Do not include "PMC" in the value. See also the pmid parameter, below; these are two different identifiers.
    • <span id="csdoc_Embargo" />embargo: Date that pmc goes live; if this date is in the future, then pmc is not linked until that date.
  • <span id="csdoc_pmid" />pmid: PubMed; use unique identifier. See also the pmc parameter, above; these are two different identifiers.
  • <span id="csdoc_rfc" />rfc: Request for Comments
  • <span id="csdoc_ssrn" />ssrn: Social Science Research Network
  • <span id="csdoc_zbl" />zbl: Zentralblatt MATH

url

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_url" />url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove spurious tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. #ixzz2rBr3aO94 or ?utm_source=google&utm_medium=...&utm_term=...&utm_campaign=.... See WP:PAGELINKS. Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com. Invalid URLs, including those containing spaces, will result in an error message.
    • <span id="csdoc_accessdate" />access-date: Full date when the content pointed to by url was last verified to support the text in the article; do not wikilink; requires url; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[date 1] Not required for linked documents that do not change. For example, access-date is not required for links to copies of published research papers accessed via DOI or a published book, but should be used for links to news articles on commercial websites (these can change from time to time, even if they are also published in a physical medium). Note that access-date is the date that the URL was checked to not just be working, but to support the assertion being cited (which the current version of the page may not do). Can be hidden or styled by registered editors. Alias: accessdate.
    • <span id="csdoc_archiveurl" />archive-url: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the original URL becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite (see Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and Internet Archive (see Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine); requires archive-date and url. Alias: archiveurl.
      • <span id="csdoc_archivedate" />archive-date: Date when the original URL was archived; preceded by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[date 1] Do not wikilink. Alias: archivedate.
      • <span id="csdoc_deadurl" />dead-url: When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set |dead-url=no. This changes the display order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end. When the original URL has been usurped for the purposes of spam, advertising, or is otherwise unsuitable, setting |dead-url=unfit or |dead-url=usurped will not link to the original URL in the rendered citation; |url= is still required. Other accepted values are y, yes, or true. Alias: deadurl.
    • <span id="csdoc_template doc demo" />template-doc-demo: The archive parameters will be error checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into one of the subcategories of Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template-doc-demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • <span id="csdoc_format" />format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Automatically added when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
sp " ' < > [ ] { | }
 %20  %22  %27  %3c  %3e  %5b  %5d  %7b  %7c  %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  1. 1.0 1.1 Access-date and archive-date in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.
Options for this field:


  • pmc adds:

" If url is not defined but pmc is, then url is set to the pmc link.

  • Embargo: Date that pmc goes live; if this is in the future, then url is not set to the pmc link until that date."

chapterurl

[edit subtemplate]

  • chapter-url: URL of an individual chapter of online source. Should be at the same site as url, if any. If chapter-url is used, url should only be used if the beginning of the work and the cited chapter are on separate webpages at the site. chapter may be wikilinked or chapter-url used, but not both. Aliases: chapterurl, contribution-url, section-url.
  • <span id="csdoc_chapter_format" />chapter-format: Format of the work referred to by chapter-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after chapter. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.

lay

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_lay" />lay-url: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Aliases: lay-summary, laysummary.
    • lay-source: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash. Alias: laysource.
    • lay-date: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses. Alias: laydate.

quote

[edit subtemplate]

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation.
Options for this field:
  • |cs2=yes suppresses "When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation."

ref

[edit subtemplate]

ref2

[edit subtemplate]

display

[edit subtemplate]

  • <span id="csdoc_display" /><span id="csdoc_mode" />mode: Sets element separator, default terminal punctuation, and certain capitalization according to the value provided. For |mode=cs1, element separator is a semicolon (;); terminal punctuation is a period (.); where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are capitalized ('Retrieved...'). For |mode=cs2, element separator is a comma (,); terminal punctuation is omitted; where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are not capitalized ('retrieved...'). To override default terminal punctuation use postscript.
  • <span id="csdoc_author-mask" />author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. You can also use editor-mask and translator-mask in the same way.
  • <span id="csdoc_display-authors" /><span id="csdoc_displayauthors" />display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of authors, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, all authors are displayed. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • <span id="csdoc_display-editors" /><span id="csdoc_displayeditors" />display-editors: Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed. |display-editors=etal displays all editors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayeditors.
  • <span id="csdoc_lastauthoramp" />last-author-amp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to y, yes, or true. Example: |last-author-amp=yes
  • <span id="csdoc_postscript" />postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Ignored if quote is defined.
Options for this field:


  • cs2: When set, changes:
    • postscript to "defaults to none"
    • separator to "Defaults to a comma (,)"

Subscription or registration required

[edit subtemplate]

Main article: WP:PAYWALL

These parameters add a link note to the end of the citation:

  • registration: For online sources that require registration, set |registration=yes (or y, or true); superseded by subscription if both are set.
  • subscription: For online sources that require a subscription, set |subscription=yes (or y, or true); supersedes registration if both are set.

map_series

[edit subtemplate]

  • scale: Scale of map.
  • series: Title of map series.
  • cartography: Person or entity that did the cartography, if this needs to be differentiated from general authorship of the map. Displays preceded by "Cartography by".

map_pages

[edit subtemplate]

  • page: Page in the source that supports the content; overridden by at.
  • OR: pages: Pages in the source that supports the content; separate page ranges with an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source.
  • inset: The name of the focused inset referenced; example: Downtown Fooburg. Output appends "inset" after the input, |inset=Downtown Fooburg becomes "Downtown Fooburg inset."; overridden by at.
  • section: The map section(s) of the feature referenced; example: A6, B9, L11, etc; overridden by at.
  • at: For sources where a single set of the above parameters is inappropriate or insufficient to describe the in-source location(s).
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); inset(s); section (§) or sections (§§); other custom location on the map or in the atlas.

interview_id

[edit subtemplate]

  • program: News program or event.
  • call-sign: Radio or TV callsign. Alias: callsign.

interview_author

[edit subtemplate]

  • last: Surname of subject, not interviewer. Do not wikilink—use subject-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr.. Do not wikilink—use subject-link instead.
    • OR: for multiple subjects, use first1, last1 through first9, last9 for up to nine subjects. By default, if nine subjects are defined, then only eight will show and "et al." will show in place of the last author.
  • subject-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the subject—not the subject's website; do not wikilink.
  • OR: for multiple subjects, use subject-link1 through subject-link9.
Aliases: subject, last, last1, author1, author, authors; subject2, last2, author2 through subject9, last9, author9; subjectlink, authorlink, authorlink1; subjectlink2, authorlink2 through subjectlink9, authorlink9.

interview_interviewer

[edit subtemplate]

  • interviewer: Full name of interviewer(s); separate interviewers with a semicolon (;); wikilink as desired.

album_name

[edit subtemplate]

  • name: (deprecated) Name of the release; may be wikilinked. Displays in italics by default Use title.
    • type: Set |type=single to display name in quotes.

season

[edit subtemplate]

  • season: Season number, usually for US shows.
  • OR: series-number: Series number, usually for British shows. Aliases: series-no, seriesno, seriesnumber.
  • number: Many episodic shows are identified by separate season and episode numbers. Alternately, some shows prefer the format of a single episode number that includes the season within it; this format can be used by omitting the season field.

network

[edit subtemplate]

  • network: The network the episode was aired on. (e.g. ABC, NBC, CBS, Fox, Disney, USA Network, BBC)
    • station: Call letters of the local station (if any).

transcript

[edit subtemplate]

  • transcript: Transcript of the original source.
    • transcript-url: URL of the transcript.

conference

[edit subtemplate]

  • conference: Name of the conference, may include location if different from location and date if different from date or year.
    • conference-url: URL of conference proceedings, if different from url. Alias: conferenceurl.

See also