Markdown

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Markdown is a lightweight markup language, originally created by John Gruber and Aaron Swartz allowing people "to write using an easy-to-read, easy-to-write plain text format, then convert it to structurally valid XHTML (or HTML)"[1]. The language takes many cues from existing conventions for marking up plain text in email.

Markdown is free software, available under the terms of a BSD-style open source license[2].

The overriding design goal for Markdown’s formatting syntax is to make it as readable as possible. The idea is that a Markdown-formatted document should be publishable as-is, as plain text, without looking like it’s been marked up with tags or formatting instructions. While Markdown’s syntax has been influenced by several existing text-to-HTML filters, the single biggest source of inspiration for Markdown’s syntax is the format of plain text email[1].

Syntax examples

This is not an exhaustive listing of Markdown's syntax, and in many cases multiple styles of syntax are available to accomplish a particular effect. See the full Markdown syntax for more information. Characters which are ordinarily interpreted by Markdown as formatting commands will instead be interpreted literally if preceded by a backslash; for example, the sequence '\*' would output an asterisk rather than beginning a span of emphasized text. Markdown also does not transform any text within a "raw" block-level XHTML element; thus it is possible to include sections of XHTML within a Markdown source document by wrapping them in block-level XHTML tags[3].

Paragraphs

A paragraph is one or more consecutive lines of text separated by one or more blank lines. Normal paragraphs should not be indented with spaces or tabs[4]:

This is a paragraph. It has two sentences.

This is another paragraph. It also has two sentences.

Line return

Line breaks inserted in the text are removed from the final result: the web browser is in charge of breaking lines depending on the available space. To force a line break, insert two spaces at the end of the line[4].

Emphasized text

*emphasis* or _emphasis_ (more common)  (e.g., italics)
**strong emphasis** (more common) or __strong emphasis__ (e.g., boldface)

Code

To include code (formatted in monospace font), you can either surround inline code with backticks (`), like in

Some text with `some code` inside,

or indent several lines of code by at least four spaces, as in:

    line 1 of code
    line 2 of code
    line 3 of code

The latter option makes Markdown retain all whitespace -- as opposed to the usual behaviour, which, by removing line breaks and excess spaces, would break indentation and code layout[4].

Lists

* An item in a bulleted (unordered) list
    * A subitem, indented with 4 spaces
* Another item in a bulleted list
1. An item in an enumerated (ordered) list
2. Another item in an enumerated list

Headings

HTML headings are produced by placing a number of hashes before the header text corresponding to the level of heading desired (HTML offers six levels of headings), like so[4]:

# First-level heading
#### Fourth-level heading

The first two heading levels also have an alternate syntax:

First-level heading
===================

Second-level heading
--------------------

Blockquotes

> This text will be enclosed in an HTML blockquote element.
> Blockquote elements are reflowable. You may arbitrarily
> wrap the text to your liking, and it will all be parsed
> into a single blockquote element.

The above would translate into the following HTML: <source lang="html4strict">

This text will be enclosed in an HTML blockquote element. Blockquote

elements are reflowable. You may arbitrarily wrap the text to your liking, and it will all

be parsed into a single blockquote element.

</source>

Links

Links may be included inline:

[link text here](link.address.here "link title here")

Alternatively, links can be placed in footnotes outside of the paragraph, being referenced with some sort of reference tag. For example, including the following inline:

[link text here][linkref]

would produce a link if the following showed up outside of the paragraph (or at the end of the document):

[linkref]: link.address.here "link title here"

Images

Referring to images is similar to including links. The syntax requires an exclamation point to indicate the link refers to an image.

The image address may be included inline, as with links:

![Alt text here](Image URL here "Image title here")

It may also be referred to via a reference:

![Alt text here][imageref]

Here, imageref refers to information somewhere after the image:

[imageref]: image.url.here "Image title here"

Horizontal rules

Horizontal rules are created by placing three or more hyphens, asterisks, or underscores on a line by themselves. You may use spaces between the hyphens or asterisks. Each of the following lines will produce a horizontal rule:

* * *
***
*****
- - -
---------------------------------------

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Markdown Main Page
  2. Markdown License Page
  3. Markdown Syntax Page
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Markdown Basics Page